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Ecology Defined

Ecology DefinedWhat is Ecology?

Ecology is a distinct branch of biology which is primarily focused on the examination of all living organisms in the natural environment. An ecologist will look at how organisms interact with the environment and each other and particularly, how they study the complex and interconnected systems which influence all life on planet Earth.

In addition to this description, ecology is also sometimes known as environmental biology; in this field there are a number of sub-disciplines within this branch of science that will inspect specific topics of interest, such as the relationship between human beings and the natural environment.
In a general sense, ecology is the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other as well as their surroundings. As a result of this field of study, ecology will not only inspect a species of animals or plant life; the scientific study will inspect the specie’s ecosystem.
An ecosystem is defined by a web community or network of individual species that are uniquely arranged into a self-organized and complex system composed of several levels of larger systems created from other small systems. Ecosystems are vital, not only to the field of ecology, but to human life as well. An ecosystem creates organic biophysical feedback between living and nonliving components of an environment that in turn, generates and regulates the biogeochemical cycles of the planet. 
Those who research the field of ecology can study populations, communities, ecosystems and individual species of life. At each specific level, there are a number of things to study; although the natural environment is connected, the typical ecologist will focus on a single population of life forms. When an animal or plant is researched, the ecologist will inspect a number of characteristics associated with the life form including how the species shapes their physical environment to how other organisms interact with the particular species.

Modern-Day Ecology:

In the 20th and 21st centuries, ecology became interested in how human activity and interaction affected the natural environment; ecology ultimately recognized that human beings could have a tremendous affect, in one or another, on our natural ecosystems. For instance, a generic ecology study will focus on the effects that stem from dumping pollutants into a river and how this action can precipitate a variety of changes in nature. 

Modern-day ecology will often inspect entire ecosystems and subsequently study all of the organisms which live in the environment and influence it. Each ecosystem will host unique animal species and plant life, which ultimately have adapted to the system and each other. Ecology will focus on the evolutionary path of these species and the history of the ecosystem to create a theory or establish an understanding regarding how the connections between the two variables molded into one.

The study of modern ecology is not limited to terrestrial environments; lakes, streams and other marine ecosystems can also provide a great deal of information and inspiration for study.

What Are Endangered Animals

What Are Endangered AnimalsWhat are Endangered Animals?

Endangered animals or endangered species is a population of organisms which is at risk of becoming extinct, because the species either has a limited population precipitated by alterations in their natural ecosystem or as a result of predation parameters. The International Union for Conservation of Nature, the predominant organization to educate and thwart the extinction of a life form, has calculated the percentage of endangered animals as 40 percent of all living organisms on planet Earth.

The majority of nations possess laws to offer protection to encourage the conservation of endangered animals. These nations enforce various laws or legislation to protect the extinction of a species; for example, a country can implement laws to outlaw hunting or restricting land development for a certain animal species or ecosystem.

Additionally, laws implemented to preserve these endangered animals can help create preserves where the animals are free to roam without endangerment. That being said, only a few of the many species at risk of permanent extinction actually make it to these lists to obtain legal protection.

What is an Indicator of Endangered Animals?

The primary indicator to detect endangered animals is the conservation status. This label is places on a species to indicate the likelihood of that particular species not living. Numerous factors are taken into consideration when assessing the conservation status of a species; aside from the raw number of the species remaining, the overall increase or decrease of the animal population overtime, as well as the breeding success rates and known threats are placed I the formula.

Primary Causes of Endangered Animal Populations:

Climate change is arguably the predominant causative agent that has led to the increase in endangered animals. Before global warming and the mass introduction of greenhouse gases, a number of species were able to survive in their natural ecosystem. With the rapid increase of climate change, however, animals are now at risk of becoming extinct.

Numerous scientists have stated that the key cause of endangered animals is a result of climate change and in particular the rising temperatures of the planet and deforestation. As temperatures rise and resources are exhausted water supplies shrink, which creates a vicious domino effect within the natural food chain.

The IUCN Endangered Animals Ranking Scale:

The IUCN publishes a red list, which refers to a specific category of endangered animals. Under this ranking system, the IUCN establishes categories and criteria tangibly labeled between critically endangered and vulnerable.

Extinct Animals: These animals, such as the Javan Tiger, the Dodo, passenger pigeon, Caribbean monk seal, elephant bird, Wooly Mammouth and Dusky Seaside Sparrow are no longer alive today.

Extinct in the Wild: These endangered animals are captive or placed in preserves, but there is no free-living natural population. Examples include: Socorro Dove, Red-Tailed Black Shark, Catarina Pupfish, Wyoming Toad.

Critically Endangered: This classification of endangered animals faces an extremely high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Examples include: Mountain Gorilla, Kakpo, California Condo, Chinese Alligator, Black Rhino, Island Fox and the Brown Spider Monkey.

Endangered: These types of endangered animals face a very high risk of extinction in the near future. Examples Include: Blue Whale, Asian Elephant, Giant Panda, Snow Leopard, African Wild Dog, Green Sea Turtle, Tiger and the Tasmanian Devil.

Vulnerable: These types of endangered animals face a very high risk of extinction in the medium-term. Examples include: African Elephant, Cheetah, Lion, Sloth Bear, Polar Bear, Komodo Dragon, Great White Shark, Hippo and Mandrill.

Near Threatened: These types of endangered animal are considered threatened in the near future: Examples Include: American Bison, Maned Wolf, Tiger Shark, Striped Hyena and the Narwhal.

Air Pollution Overview

Air Pollution Overview

All living things are entitled to breath air that is not unreasonably polluted. Some pollution is uncontrollable and natural such as the sulfur that is put into the air as a result of a volcanic eruption. However, this is the of the few exceptions to the rule.

Almost every act of commerce involves some form of pollution. Technology and the industrialization has accelerated the extent of human caused air pollution. Air pollution used to be limited to particulate matter released into the air as a result of burning wood. Beginning in the 19th century, industrial pollution became far more complex as factories produced goods in addition to harmful pollutants. 

Mobile Sources

Cars, trains, trucks, planes, and boats all operate with internal combustion engines. Jet engines only apply to planes and are just as polluting. Each mode of transportation has its own type of pollution. The extent of air pollution produced from these vehicles is contingent upon their respective fuel efficiency and the content of the fuel that is being combusted. Freight trucks and large boats use diesel engines.

Diesel is well known for black smoke that is belched out of the vehicles’ exhaust pipes. They release many smog causing pollutants that contribute to a reduction in the quality of life of many city dwellers. The main reason why diesels are used because they are more fuel efficient than gas powered automobiles. Diesels used to burn fuel less completely creating more pollution than their gas-powered counterparts. After 2005, Diesel powered vehicles and vessels have become more efficient, reducing harmful air pollution.

Diesel have improved their reputation over the year and provide an economical as well as environmentally friendly alternative to gas powered vehicles. Personal automobiles and small boats mostly use gas powered engines. They are less fuel efficient than diesel engines. Their pollution is less obvious because the emissions are not as dirty looking. Their exhaust releases the main ingredient of smog, nitrogen oxide.

The US EPA enjoined automakers to produce cars that reduce nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition to Nitrogen oxides, gas-powered vehicles emit benzene and sulfur into the atmosphere. The greatest mobile contributor to air pollution is the airplane. They are the least fuel efficient because airplanes burn extra energy fighting drag and gravity.

The EPA has mandated that aircraft manufacturers reduce pollution to certain standards. Airplanes release similar air pollution to other mobile sources. However, they do it on a grander scale.

Stationary Sources

The Stationary sources of air pollution pollute the air in a more concentrated manner because the pollutants are less disperse if the source does not move. The worst polluter of air are industrial facility. They are the most likely to release the most harmful pollutants into the air. Commercial and residential buildings pollute the air similarly.

Air conditioning and heating systems release air pollution. Houses release particulate matter in the form of fireplace ash. Air pollution from stationary sources are more closely connected to asthma than mobile sources. This is true because asthma rates are higher in urban areas with large populations than in rural areas with less populations. Stationary sources of air pollution contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone with chlorofluorocarbons from air conditioning.

In the winter, they pollute the air in a similar fashion as cars do with the burning of diesel, oil, or natural gas to keep buildings warm. Stationary sources of air pollution reveal air pollution in a more obvious fashion because clusters of buildings each contribute to air pollution.

Statutes mitigating the extent of air pollution from stationary sources exist to reduce the harm from air pollution. The laws put most of the burden on the manufacturers of building components rather than the inhabitants of commercial and residential space. The laws target the industrial sector most.

Hazardous Pollutants

The EPA publishes and updates a list of hazardous chemicals that pose a threat to human health. It is important to know this list and the industries with which these hazardous gases are associated.

Knowing the list serves businesses well because they have to know what types of pollutants to avoid or reduce. The list of hazardous air pollutants indicates the types of carcinogenic and poisonous substances that are found in the air today. It does not list the hazardous pollutants that have been phased out or eliminated. 

Clean Air Act

During the 1960s, the pioneers of the environmental movement fought hard for the eventual passing of the Clean Air Act. The Clean Air Act officially brought American environmental legislation into the 20th century. The law was first passed in 1970.

The Clean Air Act addresses the problem of air pollution. Prior to the Clean Air Act, there was nothing that prevented or regulated the instance of harmful chemical emissions into the atmosphere. Prior to the Clean Air Act, gasoline was leaded. Lead was making people sick because it is a poison that is known to cause permanent brain damage and infertility in males and females. Lead was eventually phased out of gasoline.

The Clean Air Act solidified the EPAs authority over polluting businesses. The source of that authority was the Federal Constitution’s commerce clause. The law had major provisions that phased out the use of chlorofluorocarbons in aerosol spray cans. CFCs were the chemical that was responsible for the depletion of stratospheric ozone.

Ozone in the stratosphere filters much of the Sun’s harmful rays. As a result of Ozone depletion, there has been a skin cancer epidemic. The Clean Air Act was amended in the 1990s to address the problem of acid rain. The Clean Air Act was a landmark piece of legislation that regulated polluting businesses and gave momentum to the environmental movement.  

Understanding The Causes of Environmental Issues

Understanding The Causes of Environmental IssuesWhat are some Environmental Issues?

Although environmental issues, in the most basic of forms, have existed for centuries, it was the industrial revolution that prompted the grave forms of environmental pollution that are present today.

The emergence of factories and the subsequent consumption and use of materials, such as coal and other fossil fuels gave rise to unprecedented levels of air pollution. Furthermore, the large volume of chemical discharges augmented the growing load of untreated human waste.

Environmental issues pertain to those destructive agents that damage earth’s ecosystems and the broader environment of a specific region. As our planet becomes more and more populated, our reliance on oil and natural resources increase.

This relationship possesses grave negative externalities that augment the destruction of natural habitats and the earth’s natural function. Perhaps the most grave of environmental issues is found in global warming or the average rise in Earth’s temperatures.
This has led to the diminishment of water sources, the melting of the Earth’s ice caps as well as the destruction of numerous ecosystems. Although many will argue that this process is natural, our increased dependency on energy sources and fossil fuels yields an increased carbon emission into the Earth’s atmosphere.

What causes such Environmental Issues?

The aforementioned environmental issues possess different sources. In general, all forms of environmental issues are related to pollution, which are predominantly caused by human intervention and use of fossil fuels or industrial-based goods. Air pollution, which is a fundamental environmental issue, comes from both man-made and natural sources.

Although natural air pollution is possible, the increased presence of man-made pollutants, primarily introduced from combustion, mining, construction, agriculture and warfare has placed a greater significance on the dissipation of the environment through human intervention.
As a result of this trend, motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution and environmental pollution in the United States.

 In the realm of air pollution, a complimentary form of environmental pollution known as stationary pollution; these debilitating situations are sparked by chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activities, oil refineries, incinerators, large livestock farms, metals production factories, plastic factories and other heavy industries.

In addition to air pollution, the existence of hazardous waste is crucial environmental issues. Roughly 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year throughout the world; the United States produces 250 million metric tons alone.

Environmental pollution can also arise out of a natural disaster. For example, when a hurricane strikes, negative externalities such as water contamination left from sewage and petrochemical schools from ruptured automobiles or marine crafts are common.

Other forms of environmental pollution include disruptions to soil; common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals (such as chromium, lead, cadmium, aviation fuel and gasoline, as well as zinc, arsenic and benzene.

Other Types of Environmental Issues:

Water Pollution: A dangerous form of environmental pollution that results from the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (occurs intentionally or from oil spills) into surface waters.

Additionally, water pollution occurs from the discharge of untreated domestic sewage and the introduction of various chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, present through the treating of sewage or through the release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters.
This process occurs in situations of urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may introduce various pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Other forms and causes of water pollution include waste disposal and leaching into groundwater sources. 

Radioactive Pollution: These types of environmental pollution results from various 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear weapons research and nuclear power generation, as well as manufacture and deployment-related activities.

Light Pollution: This form of environmental pollution refers to astronomical interference, over-illumination and all forms of light trespass.

Thermal Pollution: These types of pollution exist when excess heat creates undesirable effects over a long period of time. The earth possesses a natural thermal cycle, but when excessive temperature increases are present–precipitated by man-made energy sources such as power plants, air pollution which traps heat, deforestation and urban sprawl—the effects are drastic.

Carbon Tax Explained

Carbon Tax Explained

What is a Carbon Tax?
A carbon tax is a special form of environmental taxation that is predominantly levied based on the carbon content of particular fuels. In essence, the Carbon Tax is a sin tax and a distinct form of carbon pricing. The tax is levied to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases and to mitigate the diminishing effects that such gases place on the Ozone layer.
Carbon atoms are found in every fossil fuel, such as petroleum, coal and natural gas); these atoms are released as carbon dioxide when burnt. When increasing carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, the negative externalities and environmental effects are debilitating. In contrast, non-combustion energy forms, such as wind, sunlight, nuclear and hydropower, do not convert hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide. 
Numerous studies and science academies, as well as the Assessment Reports distributed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, have stated provided exhaustive research pointing to the potential impacts of carbon products and human-induced climate alterations. The carbon tax is therefore a fundamental policy measure that is used to help reduce the amount of greenhouse gases sparked through the emissions from fossil fuels. To reduce this impact, known as the carbon footprint, a number of countries have implemented carbon taxes or energy taxes related to carbon emissions.
The carbon tax is levied and implemented differently based on government policy. In general, the carbon tax can be placed on users or producers of carbon-based fuels by the taxing only the burning of such fuels—products such as coal, gasoline, aviation fuel, natural gas or petroleum—in proportion to the fuel’s carbon content. Carbon taxes all offer a potentially cost-effective means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
From an economic standpoint, carbon taxes are a form of Pigovian tax—they help address the problem revolving around greenhouse emissions, however, they do not face the full social costs of the action. In addition, carbon tax is a regressive taxation model, in that it will disproportionately affect those individuals in the lower income brackets. This regressive nature, however, can be offset by using tax revenues to favor those low-income groups. 
Specifics of the Carbon Tax:

Carbon Dioxide is a heat-trapping greenhouse gas; in the scientific community, the general consensus is that all human-induced greenhouse gas emissions are the primary cause for the augmentation of global warming and that carbon dioxide, of all the greenhouse gases, is the most responsible for destroying the atmosphere.
Throughout the world, over 27 billion tons of carbon dioxide is produced per year by general human activity. The physical effect of this massive use of carbon dioxide can measured or observed as a change in the planet’s atmosphere system’s energy balance—more specifically the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide. 
The carbon tax utilizes an indirect taxation model; as oppose to a direct tax which places a levy on income, the carbon tax is placed on transactions and use. As stated before, the carbon tax will differ based on the regulating government agency.
In the United Kingdom, for instance, the carbon tax is levied through the introduction of the fuel duty escalator, which is a specific environmental tax on retail petroleum products. This act aimed at reducing the carbon dioxide emissions in the transport sector. The United States, by contrast, has implemented a broad carbon tax that is interpreted and subsequently implemented on a local level.

Environmental Policy Coverage

Environmental Policy CoverageWhat is Environmental Policy?

Environmental policy refers to any course of actions that is deliberately take (or refrained from) to manage human activities to prevent or mitigate harmful effects on natural resources, the ecosystem or nature.

In general, environmental policy aims to ensure that man-made changes to the environment do not carry harmful effects on human beings or animal species.

Environmental policy is comprised of two dominant terms: the environment and policy. This term, when broken-down can be understood—environment refers to the ecological dimension or ecosystems, but also takes into account the quality of life and the ability to manage our resources.

Policy is defined as a course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government body, a business, an individual or any entity.
As a result of these separate definitions, environmental policy will focus on problems that arise from the impact of human beings on the environment; this impact, in turn, places a negative externality on society in the form of a damaged quality of life.

What does Environmental Policy Cover?

Those environmental issues addressed by environmental policy will typically include, but are not limited to the following situations, subjects and circumstances: air and water pollution, ecosystem management, waste management, biodiversity protection, and the protection of wildlife, endangered species and natural resources.

What is the reasoning behind Environmental Policy?

The rationale behind environmental policy and more specifically the reason why a governing body is involved in environmental regulation is centered on market failure in the form of externalities, including the tragedy of the commons as well as the free rider problem. An example of these economic situations can be elucidated upon in a factory example.

If a factory pollutes a river, the cost of such actions is paid by society; the local government and individuals within the community must clean the water before they can drink it.
The free rider problem refers to a situation where the private marginal cost of taking action to protect the environment is larger than the private marginal benefit; however, the social marginal cost is less than the social marginal benefit.
Lastly, the tragedy of the commons refers to a problem where no one individual owns the commons; each individual has a distinct incentive to utilize commons resources as much as possible.
As a result, without government intervention, the problem of the commons would be prevalent; examples of this situation include overgrazing and overfishing. 

To execute and implement efficient environmental policy, governments will use a number of different instruments, including economic incentives and various market-based instruments such as taxes and tax exemptions, tradable permits and fees to encourage compliance with the established environmental policy.

4 Types of Environmental Pollution

4 Types of Environmental PollutionWhat is Environmental Pollution?

Environmental pollution is the introduction of toxic emissions or contaminants into a natural environment that directly causes disorder, instability, destruction or discomfort to the infected ecosystem, including all physical systems or living organisms within the particular environment.

Environmental pollution can take the form of energy, such as heat, light or noise or the introduction of chemical substances. All pollutants are damaging forms of foreign substances or energies; environmental pollution can organically occur through the excess presence of a naturally forming gas or energy.
In most cases, however, environmental pollution is prompted by man-made intervention through the use of machines and carbon-based products.

Forms of Environmental Pollution:

The major forms of environmental pollution are found below, along with their relevant pollutants or causative agents:

Air Pollution


This form of environmental pollution refers to the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere Common gaseous air pollutants include: sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (primarily produced by industries and motor vehicles) and chlorofluorocarbons.

Light Pollution


This form of environmental pollution refers to astronomical interference, over-illumination and all forms of light trespass.

Radioactive Contamination


This form of environmental pollution results from various 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear weapons research and nuclear power generation, as well as manufacture and deployment-related activities.

Water Pollution

A dangerous form of environmental pollution that results from the discharge of wastewater from commercial and industrial waste (occurs intentionally or from oil spills) into surface waters.
Additionally, water pollution occurs from the discharge of untreated domestic sewage and the introduction of various chemical contaminants, such as chlorine, present through the treating of sewage or through the release of waste and contaminants into surface runoff flowing to surface waters.
This process occurs in situations of urban runoff and agricultural runoff, which may introduce various pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Other forms and causes of water pollution include waste disposal and leaching into groundwater sources. 

Causes of Environmental Pollution

The aforementioned forms of environmental pollution possess different sources. Air pollution, for instances, comes from both man-made and natural sources.

Although natural air pollution is possible, the increased presence of man-made pollutants, primarily introduced from combustion, mining, construction, agriculture and warfare has placed a greater significance on the dissipation of the environment through human intervention.
As a result of this trend, motor vehicle emissions are one of the leading causes of air pollution and environmental pollution in the United States.
In the realm of air pollution, a complimentary form of environmental pollution known as stationary pollution; these debilitating situations are sparked by chemical plants, coal-fired power plants, petrochemical plants, nuclear waste disposal activities, oil refineries, incinerators, large livestock farms, metals production factories, plastic factories and other heavy industries.

In addition to air pollution, the existence of hazardous waste is a crucial aspect of environmental pollution. Roughly 400 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are generated each year throughout the world; the United States produces 250 million metric tons alone.

Environmental pollution can also arise out of a natural disaster. For example, when a hurricane strikes, negative externalities such as water contamination left from sewage and petrochemical schools from ruptured automobiles or marine crafts are common.

Other forms of environmental pollution include disruptions to soil; common soil contaminants are chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals (such as chromium, lead, cadmium, aviation fuel and gasoline, as well as zinc, arsenic and benzene.

Effects of Environmental Pollution

Environmental pollution has been found to be present widely throughout the world; the effects of such contamination are as follows:

Carbon dioxide emissions perpetuate ocean acidification and the ongoing decrease in the pH of the planet’s oceans as more and more carbon dioxide is dissolved.

The emission of greenhouse gas augments global warming which affects the ecosystem in a variety of ways.

The destruction of species and plant life can contribute debris and biomolecules that irreparably alter soil and chemical compositions of the environment, which leads to a reduction of native species competitiveness.

The presence of smog and haze can reduce the amount of sunlight received by life forms, most notably plant species, whose photosynthesis cycle is altered, leading to the production of tropospheric ozone materials.

The presence of Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides can cause acid rain which diminishes the pH value of soil.

What Are The Effects of Oil Spill

What Are The Effects of Oil SpillWhat is an Oil Spill?

An oil spill refers to the release of a liquid-based petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment as a result of human activity. This introduction of destructive agents is a drastic form of environmental pollution that harbors numerous negative externalities and could precipitate the dissolvent of an entire ecosystem. The term oil spill most likely refers to marine oil spills, which occur when oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters.

As a broad term, oil spills include the release of all crude oil from tankers, drilling rigs, wells and offshore platforms, as well as those spills of refined petroleum products (such as diesel and gasoline) and their by-products. In addition, oil spills can refer to the release of heavier fuels into the environment that are carried on large ships, such as bunker fuels or the spill of any oily substance or waste product.

What are the Environmental Effects of an Oil Spill?

Oil spills are extremely destructive to the environment; a generic oil spill can take months or years to clean up. An oil spill is extraordinarily damaging because the oil, when released from its containment, penetrates specie’s ecosystem as well as its natural defense structure. For example, oil penetrates the plumage of all birds, reducing its insulating abilities, thus rendering the birds defenseless against temperature fluctuations and water buoyancy.

In addition to penetrating the bird’s core, an oil spill also impairs or disables birds’ flying abilities, which impedes them from foraging and escaping from predators. When the bird attempts to preen, it will ingest oil that is soaked in their feathers, causing kidney damage and rupturing the animal’s digestive tract and liver function. As a result of these terrible consequences, the majority of birds will perish, without human intervention, from an oil spill.

Marine mammals are also gravely affected when exposed to an oil spill. When released, oil coats the fur of seals and Sea otters, reducing the animals’ insulation abilities, ultimately leading to body temperature fluctuations and hypothermia.

Furthermore, ingestion of the oil can cause dehydration and impaired digestive tracts; because oil floats on top of water, sunlight barely penetrates into affected areas, limiting the photosynthesis abilities of marine planes and phytoplankton. Each of these deadly characteristics ultimately ruptures and affects the food chain in these ecosystems; when one portion of the food chain is altered the lower rungs of the chain snap as well.

The Cleanup and Recovery of an Oil Spill:

Cleanup and recovery efforts from an oil spill is a difficult process that is dependent on numerous factors, including the type of oil spilled, the temperature of the water and the types of beaches or shorelines involved. The various methods for cleaning up an oil spill include the following procedures:

Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms or biological agents to break down and subsequently remove oil

Controlled burning may be an effective way to reduce the amount of oil in water; this process must be executed in a low-wind environment to mitigate the amount of air pollution.

Dispersants may act as detergents; these agents cluster around oil globules effectively allowing them to be carried away in the water.

Other effective ways to remove or diminish the effects of an oil spill include: skimming, dredging and the creation of a centrifuge.

What Do National Parks Include

What Do National Parks Include

National parks often include  protected land and wildlife. The national park system  is in place to protect the land and the wildlife that thrives there. There may be special efforts to prevent invasive species in national parks, as well as efforts to ensure the survival of native species.
National parks can be various sizes, but each offers protection to the wildlife that lives on the land. In some cases, the hunting of certain species may be allowed in a national park if the population has outgrown the land. In other cases, there are individuals that go to the park to remove invasive plant species.
Anyone found to cause damage to a national park, can face fines and criminal penalties. Although national parks are there for people to enjoy, they must respect the land while they are there. For example, it is often illegal to pick flowers or remove any plant or animal species from the land. This is done to ensure that there is no damage to the fragile ecosystem.
In addition to fines for removal of species, there are also large fines for those that are charged with polluting the land in a national park. Pollution can be as simple as leaving trash behind, but it can also include environmental contaminants, such as illegal dumping.
Many scientists believe that national parks help to ensure the survival of some species that would otherwise have no chance of avoiding extinction. 

Environmental Justice Explained

Environmental Justice Explained

Environmental justice is a concept that is closely associated to social justice. Environmental justice includes fair access to areas where people live, learn, work and play. That can encompasses schools, homes, apartment and a variety of other structures and land.
Environmental justice issues can include several factors. For example, if a body of water, such as the Atlantic ocean, were only accessible to a select few, there would be no environmental justice.
This concept is meant to ensure that every person has access to basic human rights. The earth, and therefore the environment, is meant to be enjoyed be every person, not simply by those that have vast resources.
The department of justice handles many issues of justice, including justice for human rights violations. The department if justice may for example, investigate cases in which individuals are denied access to the right to learn. The learning environment can encompass a variety  of structures, but every person has the right to an education, regardless of structure type and the same can be be said for the right to play. In other words, each person has the basic human right to enjoy their environment.

There have been many cases throughout history in which people were denied access to environmental  justice, on a large scale. However, there are also smaller scale cases of environmental injustice which occur every day. Many times these issues relate to some form of biased or prejudiced behaviour.